Feline retroviral testing is commonly performed via a variety of in-house ELISA tests, now offered by various manufactures. These tests are used in shelter and rescue settings as well as general and specialty small animal practices, but they are often used inconsistently between various groups and the information provided by the tests is frequently misunderstood and potentially further complicated by confirmatory testing. In many environments, this misunderstanding and confusion can have dire consequences for the cats and kittens in care. So what does it all mean? This presentation will cover the basic pathology of both feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus, different means of testing for these viruses, as well as how helpful the information from each of the tests may or may not be when making decisions in a shelter or rescue setting.